Marking the Close

Market Manipulation — Trade Compliance & Surveillance

About the online training programme

Marking the close concerns a form of market manipulation. It concerns the manipulation of reference prices, such as settlement prices, indices or markers, which are used as reference to settle contracts, like commodity supply agreements of financial instruments, such as cash settled derivatives. Manipulation of a reference price would imply that invoicing takes place on an incorrect price reference. Analogously, positions are valuated in an incorrect way. However, regulations which prohibit market abuse in financial markets aim to protect investors, while regulations which prohibit market abuse in commodity and energy markets aim to protect consumers.

Course contents

This series of courses covers the following videos:

  1. Price positioning – Introduction
  2. Price positioning – When and where?
  3. Marking the close – Introduction
  4. Settlement of commodity supply contacts
  5. Settlement of derivatives contracts
  6. Valuation of contracts
  7. Markers
  8. Marking references
  9. Mistakes
  10. Benchmarks
  11. The LIBOR scandal
  12. Conflicts of interest
  13. Corporate policy
  14. Example
  15. Trigger
  16. Choice market
  17. Susupicious timing

Learning Platform

€ 1,190

Access to all 80+ courses & exams
Validity 12 months

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About our Learning Platform

With no time-to-market, any learner can buy a licence for 365 days access. Alike Netflix, we provide 24/7 access to all listed courses and exams. Self-study in own time and at own pace, with instant certification upon passing an exam. Access-to-all is provided upon the purchase of a learning licence, one for each learner. Discount for group. Observe our ultra-quick customer on-boarding.

Our Purpose

Entrima provides learning services for professionals in the commodity & energy markets.

Content & Context

Entrima’s mission is to transfer knowledge regarding the business, controls & operations of parties in (or relating to) the wholesale markets.

Conduct & Culture

Entrima mission is to facilitate the prevention & detection of misconduct and to foster proper behaviour in organisations. This is achieved via training, periodic updates and increased awareness.