June 24, 2020


In order to guarantee the duties of a clearing house, market participants need to arrange for a guarantee for each position, for instance, being commodity (derivatives) contract.
June 10, 2020


In the field of trading operations, clearing of transactions is a very important process. Clearing is often considered guaranteeing the settlement of a contract between two parties, like a form of insurance.
May 27, 2020

Counterparty risk & credit support

Counterparty risk consists of delivery risk for the buyer and credit risk for the seller. These risks have to be managed by those parties who are involved with it.
May 13, 2020

Trade & risk management solutions

Commodity trading can be considered a business function. As with any business, it has to be checked and verified by control functions and it has to be given assistance by support functions.
April 29, 2020

Trade operations

Typical commodity & energy trade operations are quite diverse.
April 15, 2020

Cost of carry

A rational market participant should be indifferent to buy an asset now or in time. Pricing of products should be accordingly, including commodities and financial instruments.
April 1, 2020

Options – Tools to speculate or hedge

Options can be used to create an exposure (and, thus, to speculate), but, alternatively, they can be applied as an instrument to hedge an exposure.
June 17, 2019


‘Commoditisation’, or ‘commodification’, concerns a process of standardisation or creating fungibility.
May 20, 2019

The supply chain

The supply chain, or the value chain, concerns the system of organisations, people, technology, activities, information and resources involved in moving a product or service from supplier to customer.
April 30, 2019

Classification of commodities

Commodities themselves can also be classified. As always, classifications can be made in various ways.
April 2, 2019

Classification of assets

In order to understand the place of the commodity markets, one needs to consider the bigger picture.
March 4, 2019

Classification of natural resources

Natural resources can be classified in a variety of ways. All of these categorisations are set out in this article.

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